Egypt has ousted two presidents and witnessed countless protests in the past two and a half years. Here's a timeline of Egypt's battle for freedom.
The state of emergency in Egypt on Thursday came after Wednesday's bloody assault in the capital, Cairo, sparked violence across the country that officials said claimed over 400 lives so far. Protests camps are demanding the reinstatement of ousted president Mohamed Morsi.
The army-backed interim government on Wednesday imposed a month-long nationwide state of emergency, and curfews in Cairo and 13 other provinces after the violence on the day.
This is the country's second revolt against a leader in two and a half years, with the first one resulting in the the ouster of president Hosni Mubarak. The coup saw him go to trial for the deaths of protesters at the time.
Here's a timeline of events that took place since the Arab Spring in 2011 until now.
- January 25 2011: Egyptian protesters, inspired by the uprising in Tunisia and part of the Arab Spring, take to Cairo's streets to oust president Hosni Mubarak.
- February 11 2011: Mubarak, desperate to retain power, brutally puts down demonstrators. After nearly 30 years of authoritarian rule, Egypt's fourth president finally yields, handing power to army council.
- November 28 2011: Parliamentary elections take place amidst unrest at slow pace of change. The Muslim Brotherhood wins nearly half the seats, and ultra-conservative Salafis take a quarter.
- June 24 2012: Muslim Brotherhood candidate Morsi becomes Egypt's first democratically elected president, narrowly winning with 51.7% of the vote.
- November 22 2012: Public unrest follows Morsi's decision as president to weaken powers of the judiciary, forcing him to U-turn over some proposals he had made before taking leadership.
- December 24 2012: Nearly two thirds of the population vote in favour of the government's draft constitution for Egypt. Critics, mainly secularists, say the document betrays the revolution. Islamist disagree.
- Jan 25 2013: Tahrir Square in Cairo once again becomes the focal point for Egypt's protesters. On the two-year anniversary of the start of the revolt against Mubarak, angry crowds chant for his successor, Morsi, to step down.
- June 30 2013: Millions rally to demand Morsi step down as president.
- July 3 2013: The military, having decided that the country has reached a political impasse, deposes Morsi, suspends the constitution and imposes an interim technocrat government.
- July 4 2013: Cairo's Rabaa al-Adawiya mosque, a protest camp for pro-Morsi supporters, becomes the scene of ongoing bloody battles with security forces.
- July 5 2013: US President Barack Obama and other world leaders urge Egypt to swiftly restore a civilian government. Supporters of ousted Morsi accuse the new interim authorities of carrying out a crackdown of their remaining leaders.
- August 11 2013: Security forces lose patience with protesters at Rabaa al-Adawiya mosque, threatening to break up sit-ins.
- August 14 2013: Army moves in to remove protesters, killing scores of people.
Timeline from © Guardian News and Media 2013