Sub-Saharan Africa loses about $1.5-billion a year to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in the high seas.
Mining on land very evidently leaves scars and long-term problems such as acid mine drainage.
South Africa has for years taken pride in having well-managed fisheries.
Activists and fishing groups are at odds with the department over 'unsustainable' catch allowances.
What harm could mining do to the sea bed?
Fishing is the lifeblood of Cabinda, a small exclave of Angola separated from the rest of the country by a sliver of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Fishermen believe the new 'experimental' permits are an ANC ploy to gain their votes. Fiona Macleod reports.
Consumer choice drives production and capitalism and colour-coding is changing demand patterns and the species caught, writes Sipho Kigs.
Researchers find that it is making them increasingly vulnerable to predators.
Marine interests are up in arms after vital areas were left out of its transfer to the agriculture department.