In South Africa, 2012 became synonymous with the Marikana massacre in August and wildcat strikes that ensured the mining sector ground to a halt.
Ratings downgrades, rising costs and a widening trade deficit caused headaches as the year drew to a close.
But with it came the good: interest rates are at a near 40-year low and inflation has remained stable.
The JSE’s all-share index has performed exceedingly well and, in the run-up to the ANC conference in Mangaung this week, big business united in lobbying the government. Bring on 2013!.