But this does not include nuclear material left over from mining aborted about 40 years ago.
The dumping of radioactive waste can almost be excused because legislation was virtually nonexistent at the time. But the crime is still committed.
Uranium mining is returning to the area, threatening water resources in a dry region and raising concerns about the spread of radiation particles.
South Africa now has its own impressive geoglyph, a monumental land artwork in the tradition of Peru’s mysterious Nazca lines.
A team of researchers has R12.5-million and two years to consider the effect of fracking for shale gas on the Karoo.
The need for the karretjiemense's artisanal skills has fallen away, robbing them of a livelihood. Yet some persevere with the traditional way of life.
The government plans to grant oil companies licences to begin exploring the Karoo for gas from as early as July this year.
Mamphela Ramphele's party will oppose hydraulic fracturing, a first for a South African political party.
Parliament's committee on mineral resources says gas and oil should be treated differently to mining.
The fight is no longer about fracking but how it is going to be carried out, writes Sarah Wild.
The sparse and evocative Karoo, a place for artists and soil-tillers, may soon become a place for geologists, scientists, and fracking.
SA government has proposed that companies involved in fracking disclose the chemicals used and adhere to American Petroluem Institute standards.
Julienne du Toit heads off for a Karoo farmstay with her husband Chris Marais and finds lots of nothing — gloriously serene nothing.
Shell's Karoo fracking plans have catalysed a battle between the government and farmers as well as conservationists like billionaire Johann Rupert.
A US study that links fracking to high concentrations of methane in drinking wells has sparked debate about the technique for extracting natural gas.
A new study released on Monday has shown that "fracking" can pollute drinking water, although it is uncertain the impact this has on human health.