Pundits cling to football’s racial tropes

When an English-speaking commentator praises a footballer’s intelligence, there is a 62.60% chance he is referring to a player with a lighter skin; if he mentions power, it is almost seven times more likely he’s talking about a player with a darker skin. This is one of the stark findings of a study into racial bias in football in Europe.

The study by Danish research firm RunRepeat in partnership with the Professional Footballers’ Association, a trade union representing professional sportspeople, analysed 2 073 statements by English-speaking commentators working for British, American and Canadian media outlets. Their comments were made during 80 matches in Europe’s big four men’s leagues (English Premier League, Spanish La Liga, Italian Seria A and French Ligue 1) in the 2019-2020 season. 

(John McCann/M&G)

To avoid determining a player’s race themselves, the researchers labelled players as having a lighter skin tone or darker skin tone based on the data in Football Manager 2020, a video game used and maintained by professional scouts around the world. 

They found that the two sets received criticism and praise in equal measure when it came to factual in-game events — applause for a good shot, for example. But based on what a commentator said about a player, the results were remarkably different.

Lighter skin tone players were praised for their mental attributes. They were significantly more likely to receive a positive remark on their intelligence (62.60%), versatility (65.79%), quality (62.79%) and work rate (60.40%). By contrast, darker skin tone players received 63.33% of the criticisms made about intelligence.


When looking at athletic abilities the disparity was even greater. The majority — 86.76% — of positive comments about power were directed at the darker skin tone group and they occupied a 84.17% margin in the speed category. 

Keinan Davis of Aston Villa and John Lundstram of Sheffield United take a knee in support of the Black Lives Matter movement prior to the Premier League match between Aston Villa and Sheffield United at Villa Park on June 17, 2020 in Birmingham, England. (Photo by Shaun Botterill/Getty Images)

The researchers quoted a 2005 paper by James Rada and Tim Wulfemeyer published in the Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media to emphasise just why these results are concerning: “Portraying African-Americans as naturally athletic or endowed with God-given athleticism exacerbates the stereotype by creating the impression of a lazy athlete, one who does not have to work at his craft … One form of racial bias that researchers have consistently uncovered is the ‘brawn versus brains’ descriptions directed towards players.”

Stalwarts of the South African game who had to battle post-apartheid racial attitudes may also find the research familiar. Even after apartheid fell, in a sport dominated by black players, the all-too-common belief among some English coaches was that you had to have at least one white player in your starting XI lest the team descend into anarchy.

In his 1994 book, Football Against the Enemy, British journalist Simon Kuper quoted Hellenic coach Johnny “Budgie” Byrne as saying: “Blacks will always have that way with them — I’ve never been involved in coaching them — unless you can get them at an early age, like Peter Ndlovu. You have to mix in a couple of white players in the key positions, keeper, centre-back, central midfield, striker, to keep the discipline. At Hellenic, we rely on discipline — we don’t have their skill.”

But the results of the study paint a very different picture to that which English-speaking broadcasters and the returning European leagues are now trying to portray. In every Premier League game since its resumption during the Covid-19 pandemic, teams have taken a knee in solidarity with the Black Lives Matter movement, while all teams have emblazoned the wording on their kits. More often than not, the commentators remark on what a “powerful statement” it is. 

Subscribe to the M&G

These are unprecedented times, and the role of media to tell and record the story of South Africa as it develops is more important than ever.

The Mail & Guardian is a proud news publisher with roots stretching back 35 years, and we’ve survived right from day one thanks to the support of readers who value fiercely independent journalism that is beholden to no-one. To help us continue for another 35 future years with the same proud values, please consider taking out a subscription.

Luke Feltham
Luke Feltham

Luke Feltham runs the Mail & Guardian's sports desk. He was previously the online day editor.

Related stories

Students, we will need your critical thinking after the Covid-19 hard reset

Economically disadvantaged students suffer most from disrupted education, but they also have the most to contribute to lessening inequality when we build the new normal

The Portfolio: Global Africa Lab

A project by Global Africa Lab explores the future of Black neighbourhoods affected by gentrification in New York City

Beware of Big Business bearing gifts

Large corporates whose business has thrived because of inequalities, could be hijacking the anti-racist movement by offering money and not tangible changes

Amadou Diallo will never be forgotten

Amadou Diallo, a Guinean man, was killed by NYPD officers 21 years ago. Today protesters still invoke his name as they fight for justice

Part III: Afropessimism and rituals of anti-Black violence

The final part of Zamansele Nsele’s interview with Frank B Wilderson expands on some of the thinking in his latest book, ‘Afropessimism’

Editorial: We can’t breathe toxic air

Everyone is affected by pollution, but it is the poorest — black people — who paid and still pay the price
Advertising

Subscribers only

SAA bailout raises more questions

As the government continues to grapple with the troubles facing the airline, it would do well to keep on eye on the impending Denel implosion

ANC’s rogue deployees revealed

Despite 6 300 ANC cadres working in government, the party’s integrity committee has done little to deal with its accused members

More top stories

The Nigerian government is killing its citizens — again

‘Nigeria kills its people. Nigeria has always killed its people.’

Finance probe into the Ingonyama Trust Board goes ahead

The threat of legal action from ITB chairperson Jerome Ngwenya fails to halt forensic audit ordered by the land reform minister

Ailing Far East Rand hospital purchases ‘vanity’ furniture

Dr Zacharia Mathaba, who purchased the furniture, is a suspected overtime fraudster and was appointed as Gauteng hospital chief executive despite facing serious disciplinary charges

Institutions of higher learning should commemorate their casualties

The bust of Matikweni Nkuna at Tshwane University of Technology is an example of how we should honour those who fought for equal access to education
Advertising

press releases

Loading latest Press Releases…

The best local and international journalism

handpicked and in your inbox every weekday