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02 Nov 2004 00:00
When the announcement came that Kenyan assistant environment minister Wangari Maathai had won the Nobel Peace Prize, I was in far off lands. At a party the following day, quite a number of folk who had had their fair share of wine were staggering up to where I was seated, pointing at me, and shouting: “Wangari Maathai”.
With that, they would stagger off.
The amount of space and words devoted to Maathai in the press around the world has been overwhelming: She is the first African woman to win the peace prize. It was a rare triumph, because it was the first Nobel awarded to an environmentalist â€’ all of it a miracle that came out of a simple message to her countrymen and women to plant trees, and protect the ones that grabbers were trying to cut down.
There was an irony in all this. If you take the space the press devoted to Maathai, and work out the amount of newsprint it ate up, you would need to cut down a small forest to produce the paper it consumed.
More telling, however, was that, yet again, an African didn’t win any of the other Nobel prizes this year.
Professor Maathai’s Nobel brings the number of African recipients to 12. Except for the 1951 Nobel prize for medicine that was awarded to the South African doctor Max Theiler, and a couple of Nobel medicine prizes that went to South African-born researchers such as Sydney Brenner—who fled the apartheid regime for other countries which claimed the credit—all the others have been either for literature or peace. These include peace prizes for South Africa’s Albert Luthuli (1960), Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (1978, jointly with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin), South Africans such as Archbishop Desmond Tutu (1984) and Nelson Mandela and FW de Klerk (1993) and lately Ghana’s United Nations secretary-general Kofi Annan (2001, jointly with the UN).
Literature includes Nigeria’s Wole Soyinka (1986), Egypt’s Naguib Mahfouz (1988) and South Africa’s Nadine Gordimer (1991) and JM Coetzee (2003).
Surely a continent of between 690 and 750 million people should have got at least one Nobel in economics and another in science over the years. It can’t be that Africa is an intellectual desert.
Experience from Uganda tells me that it might be that in Africa, crude politics rules the allocation of academic resources and appointments. In the early 1970s, nearly all the academics at Makerere University who got professorships received them as gifts from the military dictator Field Marshal Idi Amin. The practice continued through most of the 1980s, and indeed lives on. Few professors, who don’t support the government, aren’t friends or relatives of the education minister or in-laws of the vice chancellor become professors—however good they might be. Kenyan universities seem to be as bad.
When the situation should have improved in Uganda, over the past 15 years, there was an unexpected problem. This was when donor agencies were throwing around a lot of money for research on HIV/Aids and other diseases; to study poverty and how to defeat it; to investigate bananas and cassava; and the breeding habits of rabbits and other animals. These were more than enough resources to produce some Nobel Prize winning work.
But because these projects came with four-wheel drive cars and other goodies, the academics who were appointed to head them up weren’t the most qualified. They were the friends and village-mates of either a minister, or a general. That’s because these folks would pay back the minister for the job. If there are six donor-funded research projects in a ministry, each will get a Toyota Land Cruiser and send it to the home of the minister in charge. And they will continue to pay its fuel costs and the driver’s salary.
That might be why, apart from Theiler, nearly all the other African Nobel recipients were people who either took risks, stood up to the system, or were jailed. It would have been unusual indeed if Maathai too hadn’t been beaten by the police many times for her Nobel prize-winning act.—SciDev.Net
Charles Onyango-Obbo is managing editor in charge of media convergence at the Nation Media Group, Kenya, and wrote this for The East African newspaper
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