Clionadh Raleigh

Africa: The only continent where political violence increased in 2020

Militias have increased in numbers and strength, and now outnumber state security forces by four to one

Inclusive cabinets don’t improve governance or reduce conflict

Research on 3 916 ministers in 23 African countries shows that cabinets are representative and that leaders select members to reduce internal threats from challengers

The pandemic has shifted patterns of conflict in Africa

Although the overall rate of conflict has remained steady in Africa during the past 10 weeks of the pandemic, the nature of this is changing in subtle but significant ways

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