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04 Jun 2004 12:45
It’s a phenomenon that became noticeable in the 1980s, and is now a permanent feature of the urban landscape in Nigeria: children hawking goods on the streets.
Take 10-year-old Bimbo Dada, for example. Last week, she was meandering between vehicles in one of Lagos’s many traffic jams—also referred to as “go-slows”—selling sachets of water to motorists.
Although the Lagos state government has banned trading in traffic jams because of the dangers it poses to hawkers, the practice continues unabated due to lack of enforcement.
“I no go school.
John Obinna, a 15-year-old school dropout who came to Lagos from the eastern part of Nigeria about two years ago, fends for himself. Obinna and three other friends sell cellphone recharge cards to motorists. At the end of the day, the four return to their one-room apartment rented in Makoko, a slum on the mainland area of Lagos.
“With the money we make from selling in go-slows we all contribute to pay for one room in Makoko because we do not have anyone to stay with. The room costs 200 naira [about $2] a month. We also feed ourselves from the money we make,” Obinna says.
A wide-ranging Child Rights Bill that was signed by President Olusegun Obasanjo in July last year seeks to check child hawking by prescribing penalties for the parents and guardians who allow children on to the streets.
Among other things, it states that no child should be subjected to any forced or exploitative labour—or employed to work in any capacity except where children are employed by members of their family on light work of an agricultural, horticultural or domestic character.
People who contravene this provision risk being fined up to about $500, or imprisoned for a five-year term—or both. However, the law has yet to be properly implemented.
According to the United Nations Children’s Fund, eight million children are engaged in some form of exploitative child labour in Nigeria—the term “exploitive” referring to situations where children are below the age of 15 and paid less than the minimum wage. These children work as domestic servants and do menial jobs in markets, garages and factories. Some are also used as guides by their beggar parents.
Street trading, especially by children, appears to have started with the introduction of an International Monetary Fund structural adjustment plan in the late 1980s, which led to the devaluation of the currency, a withdrawal of subsidies on items such as fuel, water and electricity—and job cuts.
Parents who could no longer afford school fees withdrew their children from the education system. In an effort to help families make ends meet, some of these children were engaged as domestic servants to wealthy households, as car washers and watchers, bus conductors—and street hawkers.
A ray of hope was cast on to the situation this past weekend when the government enacted a law providing for free and compulsory education for Nigerian children up to the junior secondary school level. (The country at present runs what is called the “six, three, three, four” system of education, which allows for six years of primary schooling, three years in junior secondary school, three years in senior secondary school and four years of tertiary education.)
Senator Florence Ita-Giwa, presidential special assistant on National Assembly matters, has warned that parents who fail to comply with the new law will be punished.
Peter Ebigbo, president of the Nigerian chapter of the African Network for the Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect, says the legislation could play an important role in reducing child hawking: “If made compulsory, it will help to reduce child labour.”
Shina Loremikan, director of the Committee for the Defence of Human Rights, also praises the government for taking this step.
“It is nice that government is now taking the free and compulsory education seriously, as this will take most of the child hawkers off the streets,” Loremikan says.
He says life on the streets tends to make many children aggressive. They are then open to manipulation by politicians intent on causing unrest, he adds, as they are easily lured into going on a rampage, if paid.
“It is better if they are in school [and] it does not stop those who help boost the pockets of their parents from selling after school hours. Many of these street children become a big liability to the nation when they grow up as they become hardened criminals, having lived their lives on the streets,” Loremikan observes.
“When they grow up as they are likely to drift into deviant activities because of their lowered self-esteem.”
Loremikan also calls for the government to encourage parents to keep their children in school by introducing tax incentives to this effect.
Although Nigeria is currently the world’s sixth-largest oil producer, corruption has prevented this resource from benefiting the majority of the country’s inhabitants. According to the United Nations Human Development Report for 2003, about 70% of Nigerians live on less than $1 a day.—IPS
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