Land tenure is the foundation of people’s security

DEVELOPMENT

For most of the world’s poor and vulnerable people, secure property rights, including land tenure, are a rare luxury. Unless this changes, the sustainable development goals will be impossible to achieve.

Land tenure determines who can use land, for how long and under what conditions. Tenure arrangements may be based on official laws and policies, and on informal customs. If those arrangements are secure, users of land have an incentive not just to implement best practices for their use of it (paying attention to, say, environmental effects), but also to invest more.

READ MORE: Land Bill is a good, if flawed, start

An international consensus has emerged regarding the importance of secure land tenure for development outcomes. In 2012, the Committee on World Food Security, based at the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, endorsed the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure as the global norm.

Yet the norm is not being applied widely enough. Only 30% of the world’s population has legally registered rights to their land and homes.

In Romania, for example, many Roma have less secure farmland tenure than their non-Roma neighbours. Likewise, in Southeast Asia, hill tribes rarely have legal rights to their indigenous holdings, which are often located in state forests. In Zimbabwe, a customary divorce settlement may result in allocating all family lands and property (and even children) to the husband, with the wife left to return to her father or another male relative. In Sarajevo, thousands of flats have been deemed illegal because of outdated urban plans and missing building permits, locking families’ most valuable assets outside the mainstream economy.

Inadequate land-tenure systems perpetuate poverty and marginalisation by stifling economic growth. But the opposite is also true: strong, properly enforced land rights can boost growth, reduce poverty, strengthen human capital, promote economic fairness (including gender equity) and support social progress more broadly.

Secure land rights are essential to reduce disaster risk and build climate resilience. When such disasters displace people and destroy their homes, land records provide the baseline for compensation and reconstruction of shelters.

The World Bank Group is working with developing countries to improve their land-tenure systems and expand the coverage of legally recognised and registered rights. For example, in Indonesia’s Kalimantan and Sumatra provinces, we are helping to promote the standardisation of land rights, with particular attention to women and indigenous people, and defining state forests’ boundaries using participatory methods for mapping and registration.

The World Bank Group efforts have enabled one million hectares of land in Nicaragua — more than 30% of the country’s territory — to be demarcated, titled and registered to indigenous groups.

New projects are being prepared in Mozambique and Tanzania to provide customary settlements with communal titles that will ensure legal recognition of their common holdings, thereby strengthening the protection and management of these assets.


READ MORE: ‘Test land tenure in court’

But realising key sustainable development goal targets will require a much larger investment programme at the local, national and global levels, focused on strengthening land tenure in low- and middle-income countries.

Land is at the heart of development. Secure land tenure is thus vital to building the inclusive, resilient and sustainable communities that will propel economic and social progress well into the future. — © Project Syndicate

Mahmoud Mohieldin and Anna Wellenstein work for the World Bank Group

These are unprecedented times, and the role of media to tell and record the story of South Africa as it develops is more important than ever. But it comes at a cost. Advertisers are cancelling campaigns, and our live events have come to an abrupt halt. Our income has been slashed.

The Mail & Guardian is a proud news publisher with roots stretching back 35 years. We’ve survived thanks to the support of our readers, we will need you to help us get through this.

To help us ensure another 35 future years of fiercely independent journalism, please subscribe.

Advertising

Where is the deputy president?

David Mabuza is hard at work — it’s just not taking place in the public eye. The rumblings and discussion in the ANC are about factions in the ruling party, succession and ousting him

Zuma turns on judiciary as trial nears

Former president says pre-trial correspondence is part of another plot

High court declares Dudu Myeni delinquent

Disgraced former SAA chairperson Dudu Myeni has been declared a delinquent director by the...

SANDF inquiry clears soldiers of the death of Collins Khosa

The board of inquiry also found that it was Khosa and his brother-in-law Thabiso Muvhango who caused the altercation with the defence force members
Advertising

Press Releases

Undeterred by Covid-19 pandemic, China and Africa hold hands, building a community of a shared future for mankind

It is clear that building a community with a shared future for all mankind has become a more pressing task than ever before

Wills, Estate Administration and Succession Planning Webinar

Capital Legacy has had no slowdown in lockdown regarding turnaround with clients, in storing or retrieving wills and in answering their questions

Call for Expression of Interest: Training supply and needs assessment to support the energy transition in South Africa

GIZ invites eligible and professional companies with local presence in South Africa to participate in this tender to support the energy transition

Obituary: Mohammed Tikly

His legacy will live on in the vision he shared for a brighter more socially just future, in which racism and discrimination are things of the past

Openview, now powered by two million homes

The future of free-to-air satellite TV is celebrating having two million viewers by giving away two homes worth R2-million

Road to recovery for the tourism sector: The South African perspective

The best-case scenario is that South Africa's tourism sector’s recovery will only begin in earnest towards the end of this year

What Africa can learn from Cuba in combating the Covid-19 pandemic

Africa should abandon the neoliberal path to be able to deal with Covid-19 and other health system challenges likely to emerge in future

Coexisting with Covid-19: Saving lives and the economy in India

A staggered exit from the lockdown accompanied by stepped-up testing to cover every district is necessary for India right now

The best local and international journalism

handpicked and in your inbox every weekday