WhatsApp: Cibiyar farfaganda a lokacin zaben Nijeriya

(Luis Tato/AFP and Mohammed Elshamy/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)

(Luis Tato/AFP and Mohammed Elshamy/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)

Kafofin sada zumunta sun taka muhimmiyar rawa a zaben Nijeriya da ya gabata. A wannan mukala mun tattauna da wadanda suke samun kudin shiga ta hanyar yada manufofin dan takararsu. (To read the original in English, please click here)


Yan siyasar Nijeriya ba su fiye sanin yadda kafafen sada zumunta ke aiki ba, amma sun san suna da bukatarsu.
A dab da lokacin da zaben kasa ya fara daukan hankali a farkon wannan shekara, yan takarkarun majalisun kasa, gwamnoni da ma shugabannin kasa sun juya gun masu neman kudi ta kafafen sada zumunta domin su ingiza sakonninsu kuma su muzanta abokan adawarsu a shafukan Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram da Twitter. Irin wadannan cibiyoyin yada farfagandar da suke aiki a kasa da $14 (₦5 000) a wata, sun taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen sauya fuskar sha’anin siyasa - da kuma yada labaran karya.

Domin mu fahimci yadda wannan alakar take, da kuma kafofin da wadannan matasan masu neman kudi suke amfani da su, mun yi tattaki har jihar Kano, mafi girman birni a Arewacin Nijeriya, in da wayoyin hannu masu araha suka taimaka wajen yawaitar yadda ake amfani da kafafan sada zumunta.

“Mun ga yadda amfani da WhatsApp ya bunkasa daga 2015 zuwa yanzu” inji YZ Yau, daraktan Cibiyar Fasahar Sadarwa da Ci gaban Al’umma (CITAD) a Kano, wanda ya alakanta yawan masu amfanin da yawaitar wayoyin China masu araha da kuma yadda manhajojin tura sakonni ta wayar ba sa zukar bandirin “data” mai yawa. Kaso 90 cikin 100 na wadanda muka bibiya a lokacin bincikenmu na yadda ake amfani mai kyau ko mara kyau da WhatsApp a Nijeriya suna da irin wadannan manhajoji a wayoyinsu na hannu.

Karuwar masu amfani da kafofin sada zumunta ya janyo karuwar masu fada-a-ji a fannin siyasa. Da yake suna amfani da harshen Hausa wajen isar da sako, sun sanya kansu a matsayin wani ginshiki wajen kamfen din siyasa a Kano a shekarar 2019. Wasu daga wadannan “manyan” masu amfani da Facebook suna da mabiya sama da 80 000 kuma mambobi ne a matattarar (group) shafukan WhatsApp sama da 600.

Kammala zaben jihar Kano da aka yi ya dawo da gwamna mai ci, Abdullahi Ganduje, ga ofishinsa. Amma Mallam Ya’u yana ganin yadda aka yi amfani da shafukan sada zumunta wajen muzanta shi ya taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen rage magoya bayansa a cikin birane. Bidiyon da ya dinga yawo a shafukan Facebook da WhatsApp ya bayyana gwamnan yana karbar rashawar $230 000 daga gurin dan kwangila. An yi zargin cewa yawan kudin cin hancin ya kai dala miliyan biyar. “Zabe ya nuna an ci gaba da goyon bayan gwamnan a kauyuka, in da shiga intanet yake da karanci, amma kuma mun ga yan adawa sun samu (goyon baya) a cikin birane,” in ji Ya’u.

Yancin Kirkira

Duka manyan jam’iyyun siyasar guda biyu sun samu ofisoshin yin kamfen a shafin WhatsApp: tsakanin “Buhari New Media Centre” da kuma “Atiku Youth Force”. Amma a matakin jiha amfani da kafafen sada zumunta bai samu irin wannan ba. Yunkurin shiryawa da yada manufofi sun dogara ne ga daidaikun masu yi da suke da mabanbantan damarmakin saduwa ga yan takarkaru.

“Muna da damar da zamu shirya labaranmu,” in ji daya daga cikin masu neman kudi da kafafen sada zumunta da muka tattauna da shi a Kano. Ba a fiye bawa inganci muhimmanci ba fiye da yadda ake bukatar nasarar siyasa. Musamman ma tun da su wadannan masu neman kudi suna neman damar da za su nunawa jam’iyya ko dan takara muhimmancinsu ne idan sun kirkiri abin da zai zaga ya kara musu da yan takararsu bayyana a kafafen. “Mafi yawa jam’iyya ba ta damu da daga ina abubuwan suka fito ba ko kuma gaskiya ne, ita dai a kai ta gaba da jam’iyyar adawa,” a mahangar daya daga cikin masu fada-a-ji.

Yayin da wasu daga yan gwagwarmaya suka ki yarda da a kwatanta abin da suke da sunan kirkirar “labaran karya” - suka gwammace a bayyana abin da suke yi da sunan “binciko gaskiyar” abokan adawa da kuma bunkasa dan takararsu — wasu sun bayyana suna sane suke kirkirar labaran da zai batar da hankalin mutane a matsayin wani ginshiki a “cibiyar yada farfaganda”.

Daya daga cikinsu ya bayyana yadda aka dinga nuna hoton wani masallaci a jihar Kebbi domin a nuna yadda dan takara Atiku Abubakar ya damu da Musulinci, ko don ya samu magoya baya a Arewacin Nijeriya. Hoton da yake dauke da sunan Atiku Abubakar, an kirkiri cewar dan takarar na PDP ne ya ginashi. Rubutun ko da yake tare da hoton ya kai har ga sukan Buhari saboda ba ya gina masallatai a arewacin Nijeriya.

Wadanda muka tattauna da su sun bayyana yadda suke kokarin bawa kansu kariya daga labaran karyar da yan adawarsu suke yadawa. Wani dan jam’iyyar PDP ya bayyana cewa labarin da aka hada aka ce kungiyar yan luwadi ta Nijeriya tana goyon bayan Atiku -kirkirarren labari-  yana da wuyar kawarwa.

A jihar Kano, jam’iyyar PDP ta gina cewa jam’iyyar APC jam’iyyar yan daba da tashin hankali ce ta hanyar yada hotuna. Hotunan yawon kamfen din zabe da yake nuna yan APC da makamai ya yadu sosai amma an boye na jam’iyyar PDP da aka dauka a yawon kamfen dinsu. Wanda ya shirya wannan da kansa ya gaya mana cewa yan daba sun bayyana a duka yawon kamfen din, amma ya bayyana cewa juya hakika yana daga cikin tsarin siyasa a Nijeriya.

Fasaha da ci gaba

Labaran da suka fi shiga su ne wadanda sun riga sun shude amma suke tafiya dai-dai da burace-buracen masu zabe. Hotunan da aka hada da rubutu sun fi yaduwa. Yan gwagwarmayar kafafen sada zumunta ba wai kawai suna dauka abubuwansu na yaduwa ba ne, suna amfani da manhajoji wajen bibiya don tabbatar da cewa bayanan da suka dora sun riski mutane dayawa a shafuka irin Facebook. Suna amfani da wadannan bayanai domin su fitar da sakonnin da za su isa gun mutane dayawa.

Shafin Facebook shi ne inda aka fi fara yada bayanan. Daga nan kuma sai a kwafo a watsa a sauran shafukan sada zumunta kamar Instagram da Twitter kuma a yada shi a matattarar WhatsApp.

Wani lokacin irin saurin da yada labaran karya ke yi yana bawa har masu kirkirarsa mamaki. Daya daga cikin masu neman kudi da shafin sada zumunta ya gaya mana cewa : “Na tuna wani abu da na dora da a kasa da minti talatin ya gama yaduwa… har ta kai mutane na kirana daga Amurika suna tambayata ko na ji labarin.”

Tattalin Arzikin Shafukan Sada Zumunta :

Yanzu dai mafi yawan cibiyoyin farfaganda ana basu ladan “aikinsu” na musamman. Biyan yana tsakanin N5,000 zuwa N30,000 a wata da za a kashesu wajen siyan bandirin data, sabuwar waya ko kwamfutar hannu (tablet), ko kuma, kamar yadda muka tattauna da wani, har sabuwar mota ma. Wasunsu basa karbar kowane lada. Wannan ya fi yawa ga wadanda suke yi wa yan takarar jam’iyyun adawa aiki. Su, da wadanda ma suke karbar ladan aiki, suna bayyana goyon bayansu a zahiri ga dan takarar ko jam’iyyar da suke so, amma kuma basa kau da idonsu daga amfanin zama mai tsawo da zai iya zuwa idan aka yi shi da yan siyasar da suka yi nasara.

Nasara ce babba a sanyaka ka zama mai bawa gwamna ko dan takara shawara a gurinsu. Rabiu Biyora, wanda aka dinga nema ido rufe saboda aikinsa, da ya yiwa APC da Shugaba Buhari aiki don zarcewa a zaben 2019, ya ce yana shirin bude ofishi a jihar Kano, da nufin samun kudin shiga ta hanyar yiwa duk yan takarkarun da suke sha’awa aiki. A daya bangaren kuma, Salisu Yahaya Hotoro, wanda yake yawan sukan gwamnatin APC a jihar Kano, an kama shi a Afrilun 2019, amma an sakeshi bayan kwanaki 12 a hannun DSS. Ba a fadi laifinsa ba amma akwai yiwuwar saboda yanayin aiyukansa a shafin sada zumunta ne.

“Haka siyasar take,” Abubakar Dadiyata, daya daga cikin fitattun masu goyon bayan PDP a jihar Kano, ya yi sharhi. A siyasar Nijeriya baka da wata dama sai dai ka karbeta a haka - amma ko yaya hakan zai janyowa tsarin siyasar Nijeriyar?

Idayat Hassan darakta ce a Cibiyar Dimokradiyya da Ci Gaba (CDD) a Nijeriya.

Jamie Hitchen mai bincike ne mai zaman kansa Aliyu Dahiru Aliyu da yake rubutu a shafin BBC Hausa da jaridun Nijeriya shi ne ya fassara daga Ingilishi.

Wannan bincike na hadin guiwa tsakanin Jami’ar Birmingham da Cibiyar Dimokradiyya da Ci Gaban Al’umma (CDD), WhatsApp ne suka dauki nauyinsa.

Idayat Hassan

Idayat Hassan

Idayat Hassan is director of the Centre for Democracy and Development (CDD), an Abuja-based policy advocacy and research organization with focus on deepening democracy and development in West Africa. Idayat was previously principal program officer and team leader for democratic governance at the CDD. She previously coordinated the Movement Against Corruption in Nigeria (MAC). Idayat is a lawyer by profession and has held fellowships in several universities across Europe and America. Her core interest spans democracy, peace and security and transitional justice in West Africa. 
  • Read more from Idayat Hassan
  • Jamie Hitchen

    Jamie Hitchen

    Jamie Hitchen was in Freetown in 2018 to examine the use of social media in Sierra Leone’s election. Follow him on Twitter at @jchitchen
  • Read more from Jamie Hitchen
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