Afro-realism

One might think from the triumphalism of South Africa’s media that peace came this week to the Democratic Republic of Congo. Let us be honest with ourselves: the South African-brokered agreement between Congo leader Joseph Kabila and Rwanda’s Paul Kagame is the first step in the proverbial journey of a thousand miles.

This is not to say that there has been no meaningful progress. It was no mean feat to shepherd Kabila and Kagame towards agreement, and President Thabo Mbeki and Deputy President Jacob Zuma deserve praise for this. Without the withdrawal of Rwandan troops from the Congo, and the disarming and dismantling of murderous Hutu militias who may still destabilise the country, and strike into neighbouring states, there can be no peace. Kabila and Kagame appear, for the first time, to have shown real political determination to grapple with the intractable conflicts of the Great Lakes region. They will be bolstered by a United Nations unit, reinforced by South African soldiers.

But enormous uncertainties still surround the agreement, which does not cater for a range of other centrifugal forces in the Congo. The key outstanding question is how the Hutu interahamwe is to be “tracked down, disarmed and dismantled” within 90 days in a densely forested territory of two million square kilometres with the most rudimentary infrastructure. Kabila has said persuasion, and force if necessary, will be used to achieve this. But given the weakness of his army, this looks like bravado. Hutu militiamen who had a hand in Rwanda’s 1994 genocide, and face repatriation to Rwanda and international justice, are unlikely to meekly surrender their weapons, and attempts to disarm them may simply create a new source of conflict. The 90-day deadline looks hopelessly unrealistic, and South Africa’s generals are said to have warned the government that it would take that long to get South African soldiers on to the ground. A further complicating factor is the alleged presence of interahamwe génocidaires in Kabila’s army itself — despite his denials.

The neutralisation of the interahamwe is pivotal to any further progress towards peace in the Congo. If Hutu militiamen remain at large to mount attacks from Congolese territory on Tutsis in adjacent states, there is every chance that the Rwandans will reverse their withdrawal and continue throwing their weight behind their rebel surrogates, RDC Goma. Uganda would then continue propping up the rebel Congolese Liberation Movement. The Zimbabwean troops based in Kinshasa, on which Kabila critically depends for survival, would also stay put.

The material interests of the various external forces active in the Congo — particularly the mineral interests of Zanu-PF and the Zimbabwean defence force — are likely to further impede disengagement.


For highlighting the difficulties, rather than joining the mindless media cheerleaders, the Mail & Guardian will no doubt be accused of “Afro-pessimism”. It is important to rebut such charges. The M&G unreservedly supports the South African government’s peace efforts on the continent, not only because peace is humanly desirable in itself, but because continued conflict is one of the greatest threats to our national future. South Africa’s ability to confront its daunting problems — poverty, unemployment, HIV/Aids, food security, urban drift and the entrenchment of democratic institutions — hinges critically on what happens in our region and even further afield. The scenario exercise covered in our edition of last week heavily underscores our inter-connectedness with our neighbours — we cannot insulate ourselves from the ripple effects of worsening conflict and economic collapse in sub-Saharan Africa. It is for this reason that this newspaper has been so critical of our government’s appeasement of Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe.

In recent years, the term “Afro-pessimism” has increasingly been used to stigmatise critics of Mbeki’s African renaissance and its institutional expressions, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development and the African Union. It is suggested in some quarters that these are sacrosanct and that to think otherwise is a form of racism or heresy. There is a tendency to think that Africa’s resurgence must happen because the continent is morally owed, and historically in line for, better treatment. Handshakes between leaders and the launch and relaunch of institutions are seen as major breakthroughs in their own right, rather than preliminary steps towards real progress.

Of course there is hope for Africa — but it must be a hope grounded in reality, not rose-tinted illusion. If we deny problems and brand attempts to highlight their urgency racist and Afro-pessimistic — essentially Mbeki’s line on HIV/Aids — we merely compound them and make them harder to remedy by taking the required pre-emptive action. If in its desire to be nice to our leaders, the media soft-pedals on the drift towards authoritarianism, corruption, the monolithic state and the politics of patronage in our region, we will never get to grips with these debilitating trends.

The Polyanna optimism urged on us as our patriotic duty does a disservice to our country. Future generations of South Africans will not thank us for putting ideology before the facts.

Subscribe to the M&G

These are unprecedented times, and the role of media to tell and record the story of South Africa as it develops is more important than ever.

The Mail & Guardian is a proud news publisher with roots stretching back 35 years, and we’ve survived right from day one thanks to the support of readers who value fiercely independent journalism that is beholden to no-one. To help us continue for another 35 future years with the same proud values, please consider taking out a subscription.

Related stories

2019: The ones who left us

From Uyinene Mrwetyana, Oliver Mtukudzi to Xolani Gwala, Mail & Guardian remembers those who have passed on

More battles ahead for domestic worker unions

Florence Sosiba, speaks to the Mail & Guardian about how important domestic workers are and exclusion in the COIDA

“Life has been good to me, considering where I come from” – Xolani Gwala

Just over a year ago, veteran radio presenter Xolani Gwala’s cancer was in remission. He spoke to the Mail & Guardian once he was back on air.

Kanya Cekeshe’s lawyer appeals decision not to grant him bail to the high court

Kanya Cekeshe’s legal team filed an urgent appeal at the Johannesburg high court on Tuesday against Monday’s judgment by magistrate Theunis Carstens.

Leader’s principal aim to build IFP

Gravitas: Velenkosini Hlabisa brings his experience to his new post as leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party.

Police Minister Bheke Cele addresses Jeppestown

Police minister Bheki Cele visited Jeppestown on Tuesday to speak to business owners and community leaders.
Advertising

Subscribers only

The shame of 40 000 missing education certificates

Graduates are being left in the lurch by a higher education department that is simply unable to deliver the crucial certificates proving their qualifications - in some cases dating back to 1992

The living nightmare of environmental activists who protest mine expansion

Last week Fikile Ntshangase was gunned down as activists fight mining company Tendele’s expansions. Community members tell the M&G about the ‘kill lists’ and the dread they live with every day

More top stories

‘Veteran’s stripes’ vs ‘kind and fair’

This weekend the Democratic Alliance will choose between two starkly different visions for its future

The high road is in harm reduction

While the restriction of movement curtailed the health services for people who use drugs in some parts of the world, it propelled other countries into finding innovative ways to continue services, a new report reveals

Khaya Sithole: Tsakani Maluleke’s example – and challenge

Shattering the glass ceiling is not enough, the new auditor general must make ‘live’ audits the norm here in SA

State’s wage freeze sparks apoplexy

Public sector unions have cried foul over the government’s plan to freeze wages for three years and have vowed to fight back.
Advertising

press releases

Loading latest Press Releases…

The best local and international journalism

handpicked and in your inbox every weekday