The search for life on Mars has entered a new phase with the launch of a spacecraft built to sniff out waste gases released by alien organisms.
The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter blasted into an overcast sky on a Proton rocket from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Monday morning.
The probe, a joint mission by the European and Russian space agencies, will circle the planet and measure minute levels of atmospheric gases, among which may be the natural waste products of microbial Martians.
Mission scientists hope to get to the bottom of the Martian methane mystery. The gas is produced in abundance by life on Earth, and its presence on Mars could signify alien bugs on, or under, the surface. But the gas is also released by chemical reactions in rocks, so on Mars at least, scientists cannot yet be sure of its origins.
“Maybe we can find out if there’s life extant on the red planet,” said Mark McCaughrean, senior science adviser at the European Space Agency (ESA).
Scientists have detected whiffs of methane on Mars before. In 2004, ESA’s Mars Express orbiter measured levels of methane in the atmosphere at about 10 parts in a billion, suggesting there is at least some being produced on the planet. Ten years later, Nasa’s Curiosity rover recorded spikes in methane levels on the Martian surface, pointing to localised sources of the gas.
The Russian rocket carrying the probe burned 400 tonnes of fuel and reached a speed of 6 000km/h in the first two minutes of its journey into space.
Fifteen minutes into the flight, Micha Schmidt, a spacecraft operations manager at the ESA, said the launch and initial burns that put the Proton rocket on course for Mars were “reading like a picture-book performance”.
Rover will follow in 2018
Sensors on board the probe will sniff out traces of gases in the Martian atmosphere that should help researchers work out the source of methane on the planet.
If methane is detected alongside other complex hydrocarbons, such as propane or ethane, the source is more likely to be life than lumps of rock. But if the probe detects sulphur dioxide instead of large organic compounds, the odds will favour a geological origin for the methane.
The probe will take seven months to travel the 496-million kilometres to Mars. Once there, the main spacecraft will release a small lander, Schiaparelli, which will test heat shields and parachutes in preparation for future landings on the planet. It will send back data for several days after touching down.
Hopes for finding life on Mars, either past or present, received a boost in September when Nasa researchers discovered flowing water on the planet in the form of damp patches that appear on crater walls in the spring and summer months and dry up later in the year. The wet regions are likely to be off limits to rovers because of the risk of contaminating the soil with bugs carried up from Earth, but the probe will examine them in more detail with its high-resolution camera.
- Read: Evidence of flowing water on Mars raises new hopes of finding life
- Outlaws in space: Are Mars colonies illegal?
The probe is the first part of the ExoMars mission and will be followed by a rover capable of drilling up to 2m beneath the surface in search of microbial life. The rover will collect samples of Martian soil from different depths, grind them up, and analyse them for telltale organic compounds.
The six-wheeled rover is expected to trundle over several kilometres of Mars during its mission. The rover is scheduled for launch in 2018, though the ESA has warned the mission may be delayed by funding problems. – © Guardian News & Media 2016