Get more Mail & Guardian
Subscribe or Login

Covid-19 and its legacy in cities


Our cities will not be the same after Covid-19. Nor should they be. In Italy, as elsewhere, the public health crisis has put us on the defensive. Our hospitals have been inadequate. And our cities, having been planned to meet our needs at a particular moment that looks nothing like the present, have fuelled contagion.

As a result, the coronavirus is shutting down the engine of ideas and interactions that drives social dynamism and economic growth: the urban centre. And because contagion may turn out to be a long-term or chronic threat, how to adapt urban design and management has become a salient question for architects.

Planning correctly means designing an evolving system with limits and a clear view of risks. The lack of hospitals has led to a frenetic and costly race to build them in places not designed with health in mind. In Italy, the government already has considered building hubs in the centre and south of the country where health infrastructure is weak. Yet more than 75% of Italy’s Covid-19 cases have occurred north of Tuscany, where, even with the country’s most sophisticated health infrastructure, the region was overwhelmed by the need for urgent care.

In Milan, the exhibition centre Fiera Milano City has been transformed into a 25000m2 emergency intensive-care facility. But what if it was initially designed not only for its primary purpose, but also with response to a possible crisis in mind?

It is clear that we cannot build urban spaces with a single function if we want them to be useful in emergencies. The “unthinkable” must be part of good urban design practice from now on. After all, more than half of the world’s population inhabits cities, which are no less fertile ground for viruses than they are for terrorists.

That is why urban areas must consider prevention, in addition to being more “crisis-ready.” As Robert Muggah and Rebecca Katz recently argued, cities need a pandemic preparedness map. As we are now seeing, the design of cities and how they are inhabited often exacerbate the problem of infectious disease.

There is now a pressing need to bridge the technical and regulatory gaps in urban planning. Collaborative efforts by designers, logistics specialists and security experts must establish guidelines and define the best practices. Architects and planners need to rethink shared spaces, public or private, to make them controllable, manageable and able to be immediately repurposed in an emergency.

We also need to address flaws in digital infrastructure. It has become even more evident how vital the data we produce is for governments’ efforts to assess and forecast the virus’s spread and mitigate its impact. We routinely turn over our data to private companies to use for commercial purposes, yet we consider government use of the same data an invasion of our privacy, even though all governments are mandated to defend us from threats to our security, health and welfare.

A post-coronavirus approach to urban design should integrate the data we produce with our electronic devices into the Territorial Information System. But that requires digitalising the countries where they are located. Italy is paying a high price for its chronic delay in nurturing a digital culture. Covid-19 is exacerbating the socioeconomic gap between people who, thanks to financial means and digital education, have access to the internet and other electronic tools, and those who don’t. The predictable result of this is discrimination, marginalisation and growing distrust of government as well as other institutions.

Moreover, Italy’s digital infrastructure is old. A network that offers access to e-commerce websites or streaming video is not enough anymore. While countries around the world are considering remote patient monitoring or autonomous health checks, Italy is still struggling to digitise public institutions.

We need a network that can place Italy at the same level of digitalisation as any European country. And the European Union (EU) itself should be a promoter of standardisation — as it was in creating an internationally recognised food safety system. This would diffuse digitalisation, data sharing, creation of advanced technologies and tools that promote public good.

For many, the EU’s lack of a well co-ordinated, multitiered, continent-wide response has highlighted its shortcomings as a guardian of Europeans’ wellbeing. But the truth is that a formulaic emergency response is not sustainable anymore. One of the pandemic’s most important lessons is that we need to go beyond the traditional “project” approach and learn how to plan in a complex, collaborative, interdisciplinary way that accounts for our evolving perception of risk.

We Italians have learned from the crisis that cities can think and feel collectively. In these long, house-ridden days, we have realised — some of our young people perhaps for the first time — that citizenship entails obligations as well as rights. And today, in the midst of a historic tragedy, the most fundamental obligation of all is to rethink our future. — © Project Syndicate

Patricia Viel is an architect and co-founder of the international architecture and design firm Antonio Citterio Patricia Viel

Subscribe for R500/year

Thanks for enjoying the Mail & Guardian, we’re proud of our 36 year history, throughout which we have delivered to readers the most important, unbiased stories in South Africa. Good journalism costs, though, and right from our very first edition we’ve relied on reader subscriptions to protect our independence.

Digital subscribers get access to all of our award-winning journalism, including premium features, as well as exclusive events, newsletters, webinars and the cryptic crossword. Click here to find out how to join them and get a 57% discount in your first year.

Patricia Viel
Patricia Viel is an architect and co-founder of the international architecture and design firm Antonio Citterio Patricia Viel

Related stories


If you’re reading this, you clearly have great taste

If you haven’t already, you can subscribe to the Mail & Guardian for less than the cost of a cup of coffee a week, and get more great reads.

Already a subscriber? Sign in here


Subscribers only

Fears of violence persist a year after the murder of...

The court battle to stop coal mining in rural KwaZulu-Natal has heightened the sense of danger among environmental activists

Data shows EFF has lower negative sentiment online among voters...

The EFF has a stronger online presence than the ANC and Democratic Alliance

More top stories

Kenya’s beach boys fall into sex tourism, trafficking

In the face of their families’ poverty, young men, persuaded by the prospect of wealth or education, travel to Europe with their older female sponsors only to be trafficked for sex

High court reinstates Umgeni Water board

The high court has ruled that the dissolution of the water entity’s board by Minister Lindiwe Sisulu was unfair and unprocedural

Mkhize throws the book at the Special Investigating Unit

It’s a long shot at political redemption for the former health minister and, more pressingly, a bid to avert criminal charges

press releases

Loading latest Press Releases…