Contentious law bans Gaddafi-era officials from Libya govt

Passed by Parliament on Sunday essentially at gunpoint – heavily armed militias were parked outside government buildings and refused to leave until it was approved – the law bans from politics not only those who held office but clerics who glorified Muammar Gaddafi and researchers who worked on his notorious ideological tract, the Green Book.

The measure is one more symbol of the divided society that has emerged after Gaddafi's ousting in the oil-rich North African nation, stalling its troubled transition to democracy.

The collapse of central state authority and the already weakened military under Gaddafi has left successive governments without strong and decisive law enforcement bodies and forced them to lean on militias, formed initially from rebel forces that fought Gaddafi, to fill the security vacuum.

Legal experts as well as supporters and opponents of the new law note that it can be overridden if it's not included in a new constitution that has yet to be drafted. The Parliament itself is temporary, with its main mission being the formation of a panel to write the charter that will result in new elections.

"This Parliament and this government are transitional and therefore any decrees that are passed under transitional bodies become invalid," said veteran lawyer Abdullah Banoun. "Only after the new constitution passes, and we know how Libya will look in the future, only then can Parliament debate laws like that."

Law a 'legal violation'
According to a timeframe set by the transitional government during the eight-month civil war, the new constitution was supposed to have been drafted by November 2012. But the process stalled amid a struggle between two factions in Parliament – a group of mostly Islamists and their rivals over formation of the Cabinet.

In the meantime, many senior politicians and former Gaddafi-era officials who defected to the rebel side may lose their posts.

Banoun supports the idea of purging Gaddafi-era officials but objects to the passage of the law under pressure from the militias, which are comprised of former rebels who have refused to lay down their arms and hold sway in the absence of a strong military or police force.

"The law in itself is a legal violation because Parliament passed it while it was under a state of terrorism and intimidation," Banoun said.

After the militia groups ended their siege of government buildings, Prime Minister Ali Zidan promised a Cabinet reshuffle and praised them on Wednesday as "revolutionaries".

He said his government would look into the backgrounds of all senior officials and fire those banned by the new law.

Under the legislation, anyone with ties to the former regime would be barred for 10 years from state institutions, including the military, police, judiciary, local councils, universities, financial oversight bodies or media institutions.

The banned
The law bans anyone who held a post in or "behaved" in a way that served and prolonged Gaddafi's regime.

This includes participants in the coup that overthrew Libya's monarchy in 1969, members of the notorious Revolutionary Guards that hunted down Gaddafi's opponents, legislators in the Gaddafi-era Parliament, members of local councils, ambassadors, heads of student unions, those with business ties to Gaddafi family members, employees of state-run media and those who took part in failed reform efforts by Gaddafi's son and heir apparent, Saif al-Islam.

Also targeted are those who studied and researched the Green Book, which laid out Gaddafi's vision for rule by the people, but ultimately put all power in his hands alone.

Also banned are Libyans who co-operated with security agencies and violated human rights, those who glorified Gaddafi and promoted his Green Book and ultraconservative Muslim clerics and others who opposed the 2011 civil war that led to Gaddafi's capture and killing.

Supporters of the law say such sweeping measures are needed to allow state institutions to develop free of the influence and corruption that plagued the Gaddafi era.

Critics say it perpetuates the regime's practice of excluding a large bloc of Libya's more than six million people from political life.

Opponents have dubbed the law "de-Gaddafisation," and say it is reminiscent of what happened in Iraq after the US-led invasion in 2003 that ousted Saddam Hussein. Under that policy, Iraqis with ties to Saddam's ruling Baath Party lost their jobs, effectively draining the country of the most qualified and skilled bureaucrats.

The new Libyan law is to take effect in early June.

Jobs on the line
It is not clear how many people will be dismissed, but those whose jobs are on the line include Mahmoud Jibril, the liberal-leaning politician and head of the National Forces Alliance that won the largest number of parliamentary seats in the July 2012 elections. He was prime minister for the opposition during the civil war and in the transitional council that governed the country in the months afterward.

Also affected would be Parliament leader Mohammed al-Megarif, who was Libyan ambassador to India in 1980 before he joined the opposition in exile.

Al-Megarif wrote a series of books on Gaddafi's repressive policies and led the country's oldest armed opposition movement, the National Front for the Salvation of Libya, which plotted assassination attempts, including a daring 1984 raid on Bab al-Aziziyah, the late dictator's fortified compound in Tripoli. The regime cracked down on the group, executing and arresting many of its members. Many fled abroad, where they worked as political activists.

"The law is very unfair to people like al-Megarif, because it puts them on equal footing with people who killed the revolutionaries during the war," said Tawfiq Breik, of the liberal-leaning National Forces Alliance.

Majda al-Falah, a lawmaker with the Freedom and Construction Party, the political arm of the powerful Muslim Brotherhood, said Parliament will discuss laws governing the election of a 60-member constitution panel next week.

She said it will be up to this panel to keep the law or remove it. – Sapa-AP

These are unprecedented times, and the role of media to tell and record the story of South Africa as it develops is more important than ever. But it comes at a cost. Advertisers are cancelling campaigns, and our live events have come to an abrupt halt. Our income has been slashed.

The Mail & Guardian is a proud news publisher with roots stretching back 35 years. We’ve survived thanks to the support of our readers, we will need you to help us get through this.

To help us ensure another 35 future years of fiercely independent journalism, please subscribe.


‘Tenderpreneurs’ block the delivery of protective equipment to schools

Protests by local suppliers have delayed PPE delivery, which according to the DBE, is one of the reasons the reopening of schools has been pushed back until June 8

‘Soon he’ll be seen as threatening, not cute’: What it’s...

There is no separating George Floyd’s killing from the struggles black people have faced ever since the first slave ships landed on these shores

How schools could work during Covid

Ahead of their opening, the basic education department has given schools three models to consider to ensure physical distancing

Press Releases

Mining company uses rich seam of technology to gear up for Covid-19

Itec Direct technology provides instant temperature screening of staff returniing to the workplace with no human contact

Covid-19 and Back to School Webinar

If our educators can take care of themselves, they can take care of the children they teach

5G technology is the future

Besides a healthcare problem Covid-19 is also a data issue and 5G technology, with its lightning speed, can help to curb its spread

JTI off to court for tobacco ban: Government not listening to industry or consumers

The tobacco ban places 109 000 jobs and 179 000 wholesalers and retailers at risk — including the livelihood of emerging farmers

Holistic Financial Planning for Professionals Webinar

Our lives are constantly in flux, so it makes sense that your financial planning must be reviewed frequently — preferably on an annual basis

Undeterred by Covid-19 pandemic, China and Africa hold hands, building a community of a shared future for mankind

It is clear that building a community with a shared future for all mankind has become a more pressing task than ever before

Wills, Estate Administration and Succession Planning Webinar

Capital Legacy has had no slowdown in lockdown regarding turnaround with clients, in storing or retrieving wills and in answering their questions

Call for Expression of Interest: Training supply and needs assessment to support the energy transition in South Africa

GIZ invites eligible and professional companies with local presence in South Africa to participate in this tender to support the energy transition

The best local and international journalism

handpicked and in your inbox every weekday