Lattice to replace chips in computers to come

For more than half a century, computers have been obeying “Moore’s Law,” a principle named after Gordon Moore, the co-founder of chip maker Intel.

Under it, the number of transistors that can be incorporated in a chip has doubled every 18 months or so, which explains the extraordinary rise in processing speed and memory capacity at the heart of modern gadgets.

The “law” was predicted by Moore to endure until the mid-1970s, yet it is still going strong — but not for much longer.

As early as 2015, according to the gloomiest estimates, engineers working in silicon and other existing materials will run smack into another law: the limits of miniaturisation, when too many circuits cramped into too small a space leads to higher temperatures which in turn crimps efficiency.

This is why graphene, the material that on Tuesday unlocked the Nobel Prize for Russian-born physicists Andre Geim (51) and Konstantin Novoselov (36) has been greeted with such excitement.

Graphene is a novel form of carbon that comprises a single layer of atoms arranged in a honeycomb-shaped lattice.

Even though the substance is chemically very simple, it is a stellar performer in strength, in conducting electricity and dissipating heat.

That makes it a fabulous candidate to replace semiconductor chips — and explains why microchip giants such as IBM and Intel have been investing heavily in a material that today only exists in tiny flakes.

“Diamonds may be a girl’s best friend but graphene gives an unexpected and a wholly new way to put the electron in carbon country,” said Marshall Stoneham, president of the Institute of Physics in London.

Graphene transistors would in theory run at far higher speeds and cope with much higher temperatures than silicon counterparts.

As graphene is nearly transparent, it would also be suitable for making touch screens, light panels and possible solar cells.

Plastics with graphene added to them can become heat-resistant and — thanks to the robustness of the carbon lattice — mechanically strong. They could be incorporated as composite materials in the satellites, planes and high-performance cars of the future.

“Graphene has become known as a wonder material,” Geim, a professor at the University of Manchester, north-western England, said last year as he accepted an honour at Britain’s prestigious Royal Society.

“Not only is it the thinnest material in the universe, but also the strongest ever measured. It can sustain current densities a million times higher than that of copper, shows record thermal conductivity and stiffness and allows the investigation of quantum relativistic phenomena in a bench-top experiment.

“The full list is long and is yet to be completed.”

Graphene was aired as a theoretical substance in 1947, but for decades, many physicists thought it would be impossible to isolate, suggesting that such thin crystalline sheets were bound to be unstable.

Showing smartness and arguably the cheapest technology around, Geim and Novoselov in 2004 extracted graphene by painstakingly using ordinary sticky tape to pick up a flake from a piece of graphite — the carbon form found in pencils.

Graphene still remains firmly a laboratory substance, produced only in flakes of a fraction of a millimetre, which of course is far too small to be useable in electronics.

But in January this year, European scientists demonstrated how graphene production could be scaled up by “growing” one layer on another on silicon carbide. – AFP

Subscribe to the M&G

These are unprecedented times, and the role of media to tell and record the story of South Africa as it develops is more important than ever.

The Mail & Guardian is a proud news publisher with roots stretching back 35 years, and we’ve survived right from day one thanks to the support of readers who value fiercely independent journalism that is beholden to no-one. To help us continue for another 35 future years with the same proud values, please consider taking out a subscription.

Richard Ingham
Richard Ingham works from Delray Beach or London. Longtime writer/broadcaster. Just published The Roving Eye, A Reporter's Love Affair with Paris, Politics & Sport. Board member of FXB USA Foundation Board. Richard Ingham has over 4891 followers on Twitter.

Related stories

Landmark roadmap sets climate change course for 2015

After two and a half days of round-the-clock discussions at the end of COP17, global leaders have finally agreed on a course to fight climate change.

Aids: A tale of tragedy and hope

On June 5 1981 epidemiologists reported a baffling event: five young gay men in Los Angeles, all previously healthy, had fallen ill with pneumonia.

‘The world is free of rinderpest’

World farm monitors on Wednesday declared that a cattle-killing virus that has been a curse through the ages has been wiped out.

Call for ICC to probe ‘Zanu-PF rape campaign’

The ICC must probe allegations that Robert Mugabe's youth militia launched a campaign of rape during 2008 elections, a campaign group has said.

Gel breakthrough lifts mood at Aids conference

A breakthrough test of a vaginal gel to protect women against HIV unleashed a wave of optimism at the world Aids conference on Tuesday.

Football’s just a game … isn’t it?

The World Cup's message is this: football is a vehicle of harmony, uniting nations under the banner of sport. What if the truth were not so pretty?.

Subscribers only

Toxic power struggle hits public works

With infighting and allegations of corruption and poor planning, the department’s top management looks like a scene from ‘Survivor’

Free State branches gun for Ace

Parts of the provincial ANC will target their former premier, Magashule, and the Free State PEC in a rolling mass action campaign

More top stories

Vitamin therapy is for drips

It may be marketed by influencers, but intravenous vitamin therapy is not necessary and probably not worth the hype, experts say

Facebook, Instagram indiscriminately flag #EndSars posts as fake news

Fact-checking is appropriate but the platforms’ scattershot approach has resulted in genuine information and messages about Nigerians’ protest against police brutality being silenced

Murder of anti-mining activist emboldens KZN community

Mam’Ntshangase was described as a fierce critic of mining and ambassador for land rights.

Unite with Nigeria’s ‘Speak Up’ generation protesting against police brutality

Photos of citizens draped in the bloodied flag have spread around the world in the month the country should be celebrating 60 years of independence

press releases

Loading latest Press Releases…

The best local and international journalism

handpicked and in your inbox every weekday